Mengenai Saya

Foto saya
Juwana Pati, Central Java, Indonesia
I am an English teacher in SMA Negeri 1 Pati. I am a father of two children Wanindyatami Firstidi Putri and Satriya Pinandhita Seconditya Putra. I am a husband of Triyanti. I live in Doropayung village Rt 7 RW. 3.I am a dreamer cause I believe if I can dream someday my dream will come true.

Kamis, 23 Juli 2009

Recount Generic structure+language feature

(Story genre)
A recount retells past events in the order in which they happened

• Orientation: sets the scene
• Sequence of events in the order in which they happened
• (optional) a final personal comment or reflection

Language features
• Opening words capture reader’s interest
• May use the first person
• Most often in the past tense, but may be in the immediate present for effect
• Vary sentences length: simple, compound or complex
• Short sentences increase tension; longer sentences provide contrast and detail
• Time words connect events (e.g. As soon as….; Eventually…; Then…; A few moments later…)
• Noun groups describe people and places (e.g. the noisy children playing in the park)
• May include reported or direct speech (He said …….)
The Recount Genre

The purpose of a recount is to list and describe past experiences by retelling events in the order in which they happened (chronological order).

The basic structure of a recount consists of three parts:

  1. The setting or orientation - background information answering who, when, where and why?
  2. Events are identified and described in chronological order.
  3. Concluding comments express a personal opinion regarding the events described.

Language Features and Conventions
The recount has a title, which summarises the text. Past tense verbs are used, and frequent use is made of words which link events in time, such as next, later, when, then, after, before, first. Recounts describe events, so plenty of use is made of verbs (action words), and of adverbs (which describe or add more detail to verbs).

Short Example


Last week my friend and I were bored after three weeks of holidays, so we rode our bikes to Smith Beach, which is only five kilometres from where I live.

When we arrived at the beach, we were surprised to see there was hardly anyone there.

After having a quick dip in the ocean, which was really cold, we realised one reason there were not many people there. It was also quite windy.

After we bought ourselves some hot chips at the takeaway store nearby, we rode our bikes down the beach for a while, on the hard, damp part of the sand. We had the wind behind us and, before we knew it, we were many miles down the beach.

Before we made the long trip back we decided to paddle our feet in the water for a while, and then sit down for a rest. While we were sitting on the beach, just chatting, it suddenly dawned on us both that all the way back we would be riding into the strong wind.

When we finally made it back home, we were both totally exhausted! But we learned some good lessons that day!



A point of view is argued in an exposition. Expositions can be in the form of an essay or a letter to the editor.

An exposition begins with a thesis. There is a statement of position and a preview of the arguments.

Each argument to support your point of view is outlined.

The thesis is reinforced in the final paragraph, the reiteration.

Writing expositions

When writing an exposition you should:

• focus on groups not individuals eg pests

• use present tense eg affects

• use words to link arguments eg lastly.

Use the exposition text 'Integrated pest management' to answer the following questions.

1 List some of the words that are used to represent groups from the text.


List some of the words in the text that are used to link arguments.

Check your answers

Practice writing an exposition by developing a thesis and thinking of three or four arguments. Your topic could be:

• organic agriculture is best

• white meat is healthier than red meat

• your choice.

If you cannot write an exposition with confidence, talk to your teacher.

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Suggested answers


1 Words that represent groups of things in the text: pesticides, chemicals, residues, produce, animals, fish, bees and enemies.

2 Also and as well are used to link arguments in the text.

Go back to exposition.



Explanation texts explain how or why things happen eg how acid soil affects farm productivity.

Explanation begins by identifying the phenomenon (thing) that will be explained. (Phenomenon identification.)

Then there is an explanation sequence which explains how things work.

Example of an explanation: shows the structure and language features.

Writing explanations

When writing explanations use:

• general nouns eg nutrients.

• technical terms (often used) eg pH, acid

• present tense eg provide

• words that show cause and effect eg if.

Use the sample explanation text to answer these questions.
1 List some general nouns that are used in the text.

There are other technical terms used in the text. List some of these.


List some of the words (or phrases) that have been used to show cause and effect.

Check your answers



Reports classify or describe something eg a combine harvester.

Reports begin with a general statement which introduces the topic.

In the description, facts (parts, qualities, habits and behaviours of the subject) may be described.

Example of a report: shows the structure and language features of a report text.

Writing reports

When writing reports you will need to:

• use technical terms eg comb, threshing, drum

• write in simple present tense eg harvest, cuts.

Refer to the sample report text to answer the following questions.
1 List some more technical terms from the text.
2 List some words that are written in the present tense.
Check your answers

Practice by writing a report on a topic of your choice.

• a new tractor

• the latest four wheel drive vehicle

• a new herbicide

• a topic of your choice.

Don't forget to include technical terms and verbs (action words)


5. Procedure Text
What is Procedure?
1. Definition of Procedure
Procedure is a text that shows a process in order. Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series
2. Generic Structure of Procedure
1. Goal: showing the purpose
2. Material: Telling the needed materials
3. Step 1-end: Describing the steps to achieve the purpose
3. Language Feature of Procedure
• Using temporal conjunction
• Using action verb
• Using imperative sentence
• Using Simple Present Tense
4. Examples and structures of the text

(Goal) How to Make a Cheese Omelet
1 egg, 50 g cheese, ¼ cup milk, 3 tablespoons cooking oil, a pinch of salt and pepper
Frying pan, fork, spatula, cheese grater, bowl, plate
(Step) Method
1. Crack an egg into a bowl
2. Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth
3. Add milk and whisk well
4. Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir
5. Heat the oil in a frying pan
6. Pour the mixture into the frying pan
7. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns
8. Cook both sides
9. Place on a plate; season with salt and pepper
10. Eat while warm.

Example of Procedure
A. Planting Chilies
Planting is a nice activity in our spare time. The following is guided information on how to plant a chili-plant easily. Here are the steps.
Firstly, dry a handful seeding under the sunlight
Secondly, put the seeding on the soil. It should be in open area
Next, wait it. There will come out the sprout after that let it be bigger.
Finally, put it in another big pot. It will soon grow bigger and bigger and yield us some fresh chilies soon.

Generic Structure Analysis
• Goal; informing on how to plant chillies.
• Material; excluded
• Steps; showing the steps or method in planting chillies; from drying seed to putting the sprout in big pot.
• Language Feature Analysis
Imperative sentences; dry a handful seeding, put it, etc
• Action verb; put, dry, etc
• Temporal conjunction; next, finally, firstly, secondly
• Simple present tense pattern; planting is a nice activity, the following is a guided information

B. Writing For Business
Writing something for your business can be pretty intimidating. Well, you don't have to.
Here's a simple checklist to follow. I'm not saying that following these rules will make your company the next Google, but it will help.
Firstly, take the topic of benefits, not features. Your customers don't care about you. They want to know "What's in it for me?"
Secondly, write your benefit like you talk it. Use regular words. Read aloud what you've written. How does it sound?
Thirdly, lose the weak words. Don't describe how your company may, might or should help customers but talk about how your company will.
Fourthly, Use a nice rhythm. Some sentences are long and some are short. Mix them up and keep things interesting.
Fifthly,re-read what you've done before publishing. Edit it necesarily. It's so easy to make mistakes which you don't notice the first time through.
Simplified from:'connor

Generic Structure Analysis
• Goal; informing on how to write for business
• Material; excluded
• Steps/ method; showing the method in writing for business; choosing the advantageous topic, writing the topic like the way it is talked, re-reading what have been written .
Language Feature Analysis
• Imperative sentences; write like you talked, re-read what you have done, etc
• Action verb; write, read, etc
• Temporal conjunction, firstly, secondly, etc

C. How to Make a Cheese Omelet
Well, to make a cheese omelet, you need an egg, fifty gram cheese, a quarter cup of milk, three tablespoons cookin oil, a pinch of satlt and pepper. Next, you need some tools, such as; frying pan, fork, spatula, cheese grater, bowl and plate.
Listen carefully,
First, crack an egg into a bowl and whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth. Next, add

A. Between Explanation and Procedure Text
Seeing the social function, both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. They give the detail description on something, phenomena, goods, product case or problem.
To see the differences between explanation and procedure, we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used.
Procedure, this text type is commonly called as instruction text. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. For example how to make a cup of tea, how to make a good kite, etc is the best example of the procedure text. It is such word; first boil water, secondly prepare the cup, and so on.
Explanation, it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. Explanation is such a scientific written material. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. How a tornado form, how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic.

Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely
Generic Structure:
1. Goal/Aim
2. Materials/Equipments
3. Steps/Methods
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using Imperatives sentence
3. Using adverb
4. Using technical terms



Recounts tell the reader what happened. They retell a past event eg a visit to a farm.

Recounts begin by telling the reader who was involved, what happened, where this event took place and when it happened. This is called the orientation.

The sequence of events is then described in some sort of order
eg time.

There may be a reorientation at the end which summarises the event.

Example of a recount: shows the structure and language features of a recount text.

Writing recounts

When writing recounts you should:

• focus on individual people ie use the words, I or we

• use words which indicate when (eg after lunch) and where the events took place (eg in the shed)

• write in the past tense eg had, visited

• use action words eg helped, crutched.

Use the sample recount to answer these questions.
1 Write a phrase that indicates when an event took place.
2 Write a phrase that indicates where the event took place.
3 List two words that are written in the past tense.
4 List two other action words from the text.
Check your answers

Practice by writing a recount of a visit to the show, a field day, a farm, the vet or a your favourite place. Include people, time and the location.

Contact your teacher if you need more help.