Mengenai Saya

Foto saya
Juwana Pati, Central Java, Indonesia
I am an English teacher in SMA Negeri 1 Pati. I am a father of two children Wanindyatami Firstidi Putri and Satriya Pinandhita Seconditya Putra. I am a husband of Triyanti. I live in Doropayung village Rt 7 RW. 3.I am a dreamer cause I believe if I can dream someday my dream will come true.

Rabu, 28 November 2007

Kamis, 16 Agustus 2007


Features of Text Forms
Checklist for StudentsPurpose
The basic purpose of narrative is to entertain, to gain and hold a readers' interest. However narratives can also be written to teach or inform, to change attitudes / social opinions eg soap operas and television dramas that are used to raise topical issues. Narratives sequence people/characters in time and place but differ from recounts in that through the sequencing, the stories set up one or more problems, which must eventually find a way to be resolved.
Types of Narrative
There are many types of narrative. They can be imaginary, factual or a combination of both. They may include fairy stories, mysteries, science fiction, romances, horror stories, adventure stories, fables, myths and legends, historical narratives, ballads, slice of life, personal experience.
Characters with defined personalities/identities.
Dialogue often included - tense may change to the present or the future.
Descriptive language to create images in the reader's mind and enhance the story.
In a Traditional Narrative the focus of the text is on a series of actions:
Orientation: (introduction) in which the characters, setting and time of the story are established. Usually answers who? when? where? eg. Mr Wolf went out hunting in the forest one dark gloomy night.
Complication or problem: The complication usually involves the main character(s) (often mirroring the complications in real life).
Resolution: There needs to be a resolution of the complication. The complication may be resolved for better or worse/happily or unhappily. Sometimes there are a number of complications that have to be resolved. These add and sustain interest and suspense for the reader.
To help students plan for writing of narratives, model, focusing on:
Plot: What is going to happen?
Setting: Where will the story take place? When will the story take place?
Characterisation: Who are the main characters? What do they look like?
Structure: How will the story begin? What will be the problem? How is the problem going to be resolved?
Theme: What is the theme / message the writer is attempting to communicate?
Action verbs: Action verbs provide interest to the writing. For example, instead of The old woman was in his way try The old woman barred his path. Instead of She laughed try She cackled.
Written in the first person (I, we) or the third person (he, she, they).
Usually past tense.
Connectives,linking words to do with time.
Specific nouns: Strong nouns have more specific meanings, eg. oak as opposed to tree.
Active nouns: Make nouns actually do something, eg. It was raining could become Rain splashed down or There was a large cabinet in the lounge could become A large cabinet seemed to fill the lounge.
Careful use of adjectives and adverbs: Writing needs judicious use of adjectives and adverbs to bring it alive, qualify the action and provide description and information for the reader.
Use of the senses: Where appropriate, the senses can be used to describe and develop the experiences, setting and character:
What does it smell like?
What can be heard?
What can be seen - details?
What does it taste like?
What does it feel like?
Simile: A direct comparison, using like or as or as though, eg. The sea looked as rumpled as a blue quilted dressing gown. Or The wind wrapped me up like a cloak.
Metaphor: An indirect or hidden comparison, eg. She has a heart of stone or He is a stubborn mule or The man barked out the instructions.
Onomatopoeia: A suggestion of sound through words, eg. crackle, splat, ooze, squish, boom, eg. The tyres whir on the road. The pitter-patter of soft rain. The mud oozed and squished through my toes.
Personification: Giving nonliving things (inanimate) living characteristics, eg. The steel beam clenched its muscles. Clouds limped across the sky. The pebbles on the path were grey with grief.
Rhetorical Questions: Often the author asks the audience questions, knowing of course there will be no direct answer. This is a way of involving the reader in the story at the outset, eg. Have you ever built a tree hut?
Variety in sentence beginnings. There are a several ways to do this eg by using:
Participles: "Jumping with joy I ran home to tell mum my good news."
Adverbs: "Silently the cat crept toward the bird"
Adjectives: "Brilliant sunlight shone through the window"
Nouns: "Thunder claps filled the air"
Adverbial Phrases: "Along the street walked the girl as if she had not a care in the world."
Conversations/Dialogue: these may be used as an opener. This may be done through a series of short or one-word sentences or as one long complex sentence.
Show, Don't Tell: Students have heard the rule "show, don't tell" but this principle is often difficult for some writers to master.
Personal Voice: It may be described as writing which is honest and convincing. The author is able to 'put the reader there'. The writer invests something of him/her self in the writing. The writing makes an impact on the reader. It reaches out and touches the reader. A connection is made.


What is a Pronoun?
A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun. You use pronouns like "he," "which," "none," and "you" to make your sentences less cumbersome and less repetitive.
Grammarians classify pronouns into several types, including the personal pronoun, the demonstrative pronoun, the interrogative pronoun, the indefinite pronoun, the relative pronoun, the reflexive pronoun, and the intensive pronoun.
Personal Pronouns
A personal pronoun refers to a specific person or thing and changes its form to indicate person, number, gender, and case.
Subjective Personal Pronouns
A subjective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as the subject of the sentence. The subjective personal pronouns are "I," "you," "she," "he," "it," "we," "you," "they."
In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a subjective personal pronoun and acts as the subject of the sentence:
I was glad to find the bus pass in the bottom of the green knapsack.
You are surely the strangest child I have ever met.
He stole the selkie's skin and forced her to live with him.
When she was a young woman, she earned her living as a coal miner.
After many years, they returned to their homeland.
We will meet at the library at 3:30 p.m.
It is on the counter.
Are you the delegates from Malagawatch?
Objective Personal Pronouns
An objective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as an object of a verb, compound verb, preposition, or infinitive phrase. The objective personal pronouns are: "me," "you," "her," "him," "it," "us," "you," and "them."
In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is an objective personal pronoun:
Seamus stole the selkie's skin and forced her to live with him.
The objective personal pronoun "her" is the direct object of the verb "forced" and the objective personal pronoun "him" is the object of the preposition "with."
After reading the pamphlet, Judy threw it into the garbage can.
The pronoun "it" is the direct object of the verb "threw".
The agitated assistant stood up and faced the angry delegates and said, "Our leader will address you in five minutes."
In this sentence, the pronoun "you" is the direct object of the verb "address."
Deborah and Roberta will meet us at the newest café in the market.
Here the objective personal pronoun "us" is the direct object of the compound verb "will meet."
Give the list to me.
Here the objective personal pronoun "me" is the object of the preposition "to".
I'm not sure that my contact will talk to you.
Similarly in this example, the objective personal pronoun "you" is the object of the preposition "to".
Christopher was surprised to see her at the drag races.
Here the objective personal pronoun "her" is the object of the infinitive phrase "to see."
Possessive Personal Pronouns
A possessive pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as a marker of possession and defines who owns a particular object or person. The possessive personal pronouns are "mine," "yours," "hers," "his," "its," "ours," and "theirs." Note that possessive personal pronouns are very similar to possessive adjectives like "my," "her," and "their."
In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a possessive personal pronoun:
The smallest gift is mine.
Here the possessive pronoun "mine" functions as a subject complement.
This is yours.
Here too the possessive pronoun "yours" functions as a subject complement.
His is on the kitchen counter.
In this example, the possessive pronoun "his" acts as the subject of the sentence.
Theirs will be delivered tomorrow.
In this sentence, the possessive pronoun "theirs" is the subject of the sentence.
Ours is the green one on the corner.
Here too the possessive pronoun "ours" function as the subject of the sentence.
Demonstrative Pronouns
A demonstrative pronoun points to and identifies a noun or a pronoun. "This" and "these" refer to things that are nearby either in space or in time, while "that" and "those" refer to things that are farther away in space or time.
The demonstrative pronouns are "this," "that," "these," and "those." "This" and "that" are used to refer to singular nouns or noun phrases and "these" and "those" are used to refer to plural nouns and noun phrases. Note that the demonstrative pronouns are identical to demonstrative adjectives, though, obviously, you use them differently. It is also important to note that "that" can also be used as a relative pronoun.
In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a demonstrative pronoun:
This must not continue.
Here "this" is used as the subject of the compound verb "must not continue."
This is puny; that is the tree I want.
In this example "this" is used as subject and refers to something close to the speaker. The demonstrative pronoun "that" is also a subject but refers to something farther away from the speaker.
Three customers wanted these.
Here "these" is the direct object of the verb "wanted".
Interrogative Pronouns
An interrogative pronoun is used to ask questions. The interrogative pronouns are "who," "whom," "which," "what" and the compounds formed with the suffix "ever" ("whoever," "whomever," "whichever," and "whatever"). Note that either "which" or "what" can also be used as an interrogative adjective, and that "who," "whom," or "which" can also be used as a relative pronoun.
You will find "who," "whom," and occasionally "which" used to refer to people, and "which" and "what" used to refer to things and to animals.
"Who" acts as the subject of a verb, while "whom" acts as the object of a verb, preposition, or a verbal.
The highlighted word in each of the following sentences is an interrogative pronoun:
Which wants to see the dentist first?
"Which" is the subject of the sentence.
Who wrote the novel Rockbound?
Similarly "who" is the subject of the sentence.
Whom do you think we should invite?
In this sentence, "whom" is the object of the verb "invite."
To whom do you wish to speak?
Here the interrogative pronoun "whom " is the object of the preposition "to."
Who will meet the delegates at the train station?
In this sentence, the interrogative pronoun "who" is the subject of the compound verb "will meet".
To whom did you give the paper?
In this example the interrogative pronoun "whom" is the object of the preposition "to."
What did she say?
Here the interrogative pronoun "what" is the direct object of the verb "say."
Relative Pronouns
You can use a relative pronoun is used to link one phrase or clause to another phrase or clause. The relative pronouns are "who," "whom," "that," and "which." The compounds "whoever," "whomever," and "whichever" are also relative pronouns.
You can use the relative pronouns "who" and "whoever" to refer to the subject of a clause or sentence, and "whom" and "whomever" to refer to the objects of a verb, a verbal or a preposition.
In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a relative pronoun.
You may invite whomever you like to the party.
The relative pronoun "whomever" is the direct object of the compound verb "may invite".
The candidate who wins the greatest popular vote is not always elected.
In this sentence, the relative pronoun is the subject of the verb "wins" and introduces the subordinate clause "who wins the greatest popular vote". This subordinate clause acts as an adjective modifying "candidate."
In a time of crisis, the manager asks the workers whom she believes to be the most efficient to arrive an hour earlier than usual.
In this sentence "whom" is the direct object of the verb "believes" and introduces the subordinate clause "whom she believes to be the most efficient". This subordinate clause modifies the noun "workers."
Whoever broke the window will have to replace it.
Here "whoever" functions as the subject of the verb "broke".
The crate which was left in the corridor has now been moved into the storage closet.
In this example "which" acts as the subject of the compound verb "was left" and introduces the subordinate clause "which was left in the corridor." The subordinate clause acts as an adjective modifying the noun "crate."
I will read whichever manuscript arrives first.
Here "whichever" modifies the noun "manuscript" and introduces the subordinate clause "whichever manuscript arrives first." The subordinate clause functions as the direct object of the compound verb "will read."
Indefinite Pronouns
An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun referring to an identifiable but not specified person or thing. An indefinite pronoun conveys the idea of all, any, none, or some.
The most common indefinite pronouns are "all," "another," "any," "anybody," "anyone," "anything," "each," "everybody," "everyone," "everything," "few," "many," "nobody," "none," "one," "several," "some," "somebody," and "someone." Note that some indefinite pronouns can also be used as indefinite adjectives.
The highlighted words in the following sentences are indefinite pronouns:
Many were invited to the lunch but only twelve showed up.
Here "many" acts as the subject of the compound verb "were invited".
The office had been searched and everything was thrown onto the floor.
In this example ,"everything" acts as a subject of the compound verb "was thrown."
We donated everything we found in the attic to the woman's shelter garage sale.
In this sentence, "everything" is the direct object of theverb "donated."
Although they looked everywhere for extra copies of the magazine, they found none.
Here too the indefinite pronoun functions as a direct object: "none" is the direct object of "found."
Make sure you give everyone a copy of the amended bylaws.
In this example, "everyone" is the indirect object of the verb "give" -- the direct object is the noun phrase "a copy of the amended bylaws."
Give a registration package to each.
Here "each" is the object of the preposition "to."
Reflexive Pronouns
You can use a reflexive pronoun to refer back to the subject of the clause or sentence.
The reflexive pronouns are "myself," "yourself," "herself," "himself," "itself," "ourselves," "yourselves," and "themselves." Note each of these can also act as an intensive pronoun.
Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a reflexive pronoun:
Diabetics give themselves insulin shots several times a day.
The Dean often does the photocopying herself so that the secretaries can do more important work.
After the party, I asked myself why I had faxed invitations to everyone in my office building.
Richard usually remembered to send a copy of his e-mail to himself.
Although the landlord promised to paint the apartment, we ended up doing it ourselves.
Intensive Pronouns
An intensive pronoun is a pronoun used to emphasise its antecedent. Intensive pronouns are identical in form to reflexive pronouns.
The highlighted words in the following sentences are intensive pronouns:
I myself believe that aliens should abduct my sister.
The Prime Minister himself said that he would lower taxes.
They themselves promised to come to the party even though they had a final exam at the same time.


Table of Contents:Spacing With PunctuationPeriodsEllipsis MarksCommasSemicolonsColonsQuestion MarksExclamation PointsQuotation MarksParenthesesApostrophesHyphensDashesCapitalization

Rule 1
Capitalize the first word of a quoted sentence.
He said, "Treat her as you would your own daughter."
"Look out!" she screamed. "You almost ran into my child."

Rule 2
Capitalize a proper noun.
Golden Gate Bridge

Rule 3
Capitalize a person's title when it precedes the name. Do not capitalize when the title is acting as a description following the name.
Chairperson Petrov
Ms. Petrov, the chairperson of the company, will address us at noon.

Rule 4
Capitalize when the person's title follows the name on the address or signature line.
Ms. Haines, Chairperson

Rule 5
Capitalize the titles of high-ranking government officials when used with or before their names. Do not capitalize the civil title if it is used instead of the name.
The president will address Congress.
All senators are expected to attend.
The governors and lieutenant governors called for a special task force.
Governor Fortinbrass, Lieutenant Governor Poppins, Attorney General Dalloway, and Senators James and Twain will attend.

Rule 6
Capitalize any title when used as a direct address.
Will you take my temperature, Doctor?

Rule 7
Capitalize points of the compass only when they refer to specific regions.
We have had three relatives visit from the South.
Go south three blocks and then turn left.
We live in the southeast section of town. Southeast is just an adjective here describing section, so it should not be capitalized.

Rule 8
Always capitalize the first and last words of titles of publications regardless of their parts of speech. Always capitalize other words within titles, including the short verb forms Is, Are, and Be.
Do not capitalize little words within titles such as a, an, the, but, as, if, and, or, nor, or prepositions, regardless of their length.
The Day of the Jackal
What Color Is Your Parachute?
A Tale of Two Cities

Rule 9
Capitalize federal or state when used as part of an official agency name or in government documents where these terms represent an official name. If they are being used as general terms, you may use lower-case letters.
The state has evidence to the contrary.
That is a federal offense.
The State Board of Equalization collects sales taxes.
We will visit three states during our summer vacation.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation has been subject to much scrutiny and criticism lately.
Her business must comply with all county, state, and federal laws.

Rule 10
You may capitalize words such as department, bureau, and office if you have prepared your text in the following way:
The Bureau of Land Management (Bureau) has some jurisdiction over Indian lands. The Bureau is finding its administrative role to be challenging.

Rule 11
Do not capitalize names of seasons.
I love autumn colors and spring flowers.

Rule 12
Capitalize the first word of a salutation and the first word of a complimentary close.
Dear Ms. Mohamed:
My dear Mr. Sanchez:
Very truly yours,

Rule 13
Capitalize words derived from proper nouns.
I must take English and math. English is capitalized because it comes from the proper noun England but math does not come from mathland.

Rule 14
Capitalize the names of specific course titles.
I must take history and Algebra 2.

Noun Phrase

Complete Reference: The Noun Phrase
Full References
The discussion of the choice of language noted that a single concept is often signaled by a variety of words, each word possessing slightly different connotations. We can indicate that people are less than content by saying they are angry , irate , incensed , perturbed , upset , furious , or mad. The broader our vocabulary, the greater our options and the more precisely we can convey our meaning.
And yet no matter how wide our vocabulary may be, a single word is often insufficient. A single word, by itself, can appear somewhat vague, no matter how specific that word might seem. The term “dog” may be specific compared to “mammal,” but it is general compared to “collie.” And “collie” is general compared to “Lassie.” Then again, many different dogs played Lassie!
Suppose you want to indicate a female person across the room. If you don’t know her name, what do you say?
That girl.
If there were more than one, this alone would be too general. It lacks specificity.
The girl in the blue Hawaiian shirt…
The taller of the two cheerleaders by the water cooler…
When a single term will not supply the reference we need, we add terms to focus or limit a more general term. Instead of referring to drugs in a discussion, we might refer to hallucinogenic drugs. We might distinguish between hard drugs and prescription drugs . In so doing we modify the notion of a drug to describe the specific one, or ones, we have in mind. (Then again, at times we are forced to use many words when we cannot recall the one that will really do, as when we refer to that funny device doctors pump up on your arm to measure blood pressure instead of a sphygmomanometer ).
This section examines how we construct full and specific references using noun phrases. An ability to recognize complete noun phrases is essential to reading ideas rather than words. A knowledge of the various possibilities for constructing extended noun pharses is essential for crafting precise and specific references.
To begin our discussion, we must first establish the notion of a noun.
English teachers commonly identify nouns by their content. They describe nouns as words that "identify people, places, or things," as well as feelings or ideas—words like salesman , farm , balcony , bicycle , and trust. If you can usually put the word a or the before a word, it’s a noun. If you can make the word plural or singular, it's a noun. But don't worry...all that is needed at the moment is a sense of what a noun might be.
Noun Pre-Modifiers
What if a single noun isn't specific enough for our purposes? How then do we modify a noun to construct a more specific reference?
English places modifiers before a noun. Here we indicate the noun that is at the center of a noun phrase by an asterisk (*) and modifiers by arrows pointed toward the noun they modify.
white house
large man
Modification is a somewhat technical term in linguistics. It does not mean to change something, as when we "modify" a car or dress. To modify means to limit, restrict, characterize, or otherwise focus meaning. We use this meaning throughout the discussion here.
Modifiers before the noun are called pre-modifiers. All of the pre-modifiers that are present and the noun together form a noun phrase .
pre-modifiers noun
By contrast, languages such as Spanish and French place modifiers after the noun
casa blanca white house
homme grand big man
The most common pre-modifiers are adjectives, such as red , long , hot . Other types of words often play this same role. Not only articles
the water
but also verbs
running water
and possessive pronouns
her thoughts
Premodifiers limit the reference in a wide variety of ways.
Order: second, last
Location: kitchen, westerly
Source or Origin: Canadian
Color: red, dark
Smell: acrid, scented
Material: metal, oak
Size: large, 5-inch
Weight: heavy
Luster: shiny, dull
A number of pre-modifiers must appear first if they appear at all.
Specification: a, the, every
Designation: this, that, those, these
Ownership/Possessive: my, your, its, their, Mary’s
Number: one, many
These words typically signal the beginning of a noun phrase.
Some noun phrases are short:
the table
® *
Some are long:
the second shiny red Swedish touring sedan
a large smelly red Irish setter
my carved green Venetian glass salad bowl
the three old Democratic legislators
Notice that each construction would function as a single unit within a sentence. (We offer a test for this below,)
The noun phrase is the most common unit in English sentences. That prevalence can be seen in the following excerpt from an example from the section on the choice of language:
The stock market’s summer swoon turned into a dramatic rout Monday as the Dow Jones industrial average plunged.
The stock market’s summer swoon turned into a dramatic rout * *
Monday as the Dow Jones industrial average plunged. * *
To appreciate the rich possibilities of pre-modifiers, you have only to see how much you can expand a premodifier in a noun phrase:
the book the history book the American history book the illustrated American history book the recent illustrated American history book the recent controversial illustrated American history book the recent controversial illustrated leather bound American history book
Noun Post-Modifiers
We were all taught about pre -modifiers: adjectives appearing before a noun in school. Teachers rarely speak as much about adding words after the initial reference. Just as we find pre -modifiers, we also find post -modifiers—modifiers coming after a noun.
The most common post-modifier is prepositional phrases:
the book on the table
civil conflict in Africa
the Senate of the United States
Post-modifiers can be short
a dream deferred
or long, as in Martin Luther King Jr.’s reference to
a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves
and the sons of former slaveowners will be able to sit down together
at a table of brotherhood.
What does King have? A dream? No. He has a specific dream. Once we are sensitive to the existence of noun phrases, we recognize a relatively simple structure to the sentence. Here we recognize a noun phrase with a very long post-modifier—thirty-two words to be exact.
We do not get lost in the flow of words, but recognize structure. At the point that we recognize structure within the sentence, we recognize meaning. (Notice also that post-modifiers often include clauses which themselves include complete sentences, as in the last example above.)
Post-modifiers commonly answer the traditional news reporting questions of who , what , where , when , how , or why . Noun post-modifiers commonly take the following forms:
prepositional phrase the dog in the store
_ing phrase the girl running to the store
_ed past tense the man wanted by the police
wh - clauses the house where I was born
that/which clauses the thought that I had yesterday
If you see a preposition, wh - word ( which, who, when where ), -ing verb form, or that or which after a noun, you can suspect a post-modifier and the completion of a noun phrase.
The noun together with all pre- and post-modifiers constitutes a single unit, a noun phrase that indicates the complete reference. Any agreement in terms of singular/plural is with the noun at the center.
The boys on top of the house are .............
Here the noun at the center of the noun phrase is plural, so a plural form of the verb is called for (not a singular form to agree with the singular house) .
The Pronoun Test
In school, we were taught that pronouns replaced nouns . Not so. Pronouns replace complete noun phrases . Pronoun replacement thus offers a test of a complete noun phrase. Consider:
The boy ate the apple in the pie.
What did he eat?
The boy ate the apple in the pie.
Want proof? Introduce the pronoun “it” into the sentence. If a pronoun truly replaces a noun, we’d get
*The boy ate the it in the pie.
No native speaker would say that! They’d say
The boy ate it.
The pronoun replaces the complete noun phrase, the apple in the pie .
This pronoun substitution test can be particualrly useful. Not all prepositional phrases after a noun are necessarily part of the noun phrase – they could be later predicate or sentence modifiers. In other words, we must not only identify noun phrases, we must parse out other material, and in that act recognize broader aspects of sentence structure.
The web page on distinguishing sentence and predicate modifiers ( discusses the three sentences:
1. The boy ate the apple in the pie.
2. The boy ate the apple in the summer.
3. The boy ate the apple in a hurry.
Only the first includes a noun phrase longer than two words: the apple in the pie.
Boxes Within Boxes: Testing for a Complete Noun Phrase
The goal of reading, we noted above, is not to recognize grammatical features, but to find meaning. The goal is not to break a sentence or part of a sentence into as small pieces as possible, but to break it into chunks in such a way that fosters the discovery of meaning.
Consider one of the examples above of a prepositional phrase as a post-modifier:
the book on the table
Book is a noun at the center of the noun phrase. But table is also a noun. If we analyze the noun phrase completely, on all levels, we find:
the book on the table
on the table
® *
We can have prepositional phrase within prepositional phrase within prepositional phrases:
…the book on the table in the kitchen…
on the table in the kitchen…
in the kitchen …
We don't want to recognize every little noun phrase. We want to recognize the larger ones that shape the meaning. The book is not "on the table." The book is "on the table in the kitchen."
The Senate of the United States is composed of two legislators from each State.
Question: Who is in the Senate?
a) two legislators
b) two legislators from each State?
The answer is b). The full Senate consists of two from each state (100 people), not simply two! We read the sentence as
The Senate of the United States is composed of
two legislators from each State.
If we read the sentence as
The Senate of the United States
is composed of two legislators
from each State.
we miss the meaning.
Earlier we noted that pre -modifiers in noun phrase can be expanded to significant length. For the most part, we increased the length of the pre-modifier by adding additional adjectives, a word or two at a time. Noun phrase post -modifiers can be expanded to much greater lengths. We can add long phrases which themselves contain complete sentences.
the park where I hit a home run when I was in the ninth grade .
The sentence within the post-modifier is printed in boldface.
The following sentence indicates something was lost. What was lost?
He lost the book by Mark Twain about the Mississippi that he took out of the library on Sunday before the game so that he could study during half time when his brother was getting popcorn.
The answer is the complete phrase
……… the book by Mark Twain about the Mississippi that he took out of the library on Sunday before the game so that he could study during half time when his brother was getting popcorn.
The base term book is modified as to author (Mark Twain), topic (about the Mississippi), as well as intent or purpose (that he took out of the library on Sunday before the game so that he could study during half time when his brother was getting popcorn.) We assume that he has another book by Twain about the Mississippi that he did not lose. Want proof? What would be replaced by “it”?
The full reference of a noun phrase is often “conveniently” ignored in movie advertisements. Janet Maslin, movie critic for The New York Times , complained when an advertisement for the video tape of John Grisham’s "The Rainmaker" quoted her as describing the movie as director Francis Ford Coppola’s “best and sharpest film,” when, in fact, her review stated:
John Grisham’s "The Rainmaker" is Mr. Coppola’s best and sharpest film in years. (1)
The original quotation does not refer to the “best and sharpest film” of Coppola’s career, but to his “best and sharpest film in years.”
Noun Phrases: The Dominant Construction
Finally, the degree to which noun phrases are the dominant construction within texts can be seen in the opening paragraph of the Text for Discussion: Annotation - Needle Exchange Programs and the Law - Time for a Change. The complete noun phrases appear within square brackets and appear in red.
(1) In [ his social history of venereal disease ], [ No Magic Bullet ], [ Allan M. Brandt ]describes[ the controversy in the US military about preventing venereal disease among soldiers during World War I ]. Should there be [ a disease prevention effort that recognized that many young American men would succumb to the charms of French prostitutes ], or should there be [ a more punitive approach to discourage sexual contact ]? Unlike[ the New Zealand Expeditionary forces ], which gave[ condoms ]to[ their soldiers ],[ the United States ]decided to give [ American soldiers ][after-the-fact, and largely ineffective, chemical prophylaxis ]. [ American soldiers ]also were subject to [ court martial ] if they contracted[ a venereal disease ]. [ These measures ] failed. [ More than 383,000 soldiers ]were diagnosed with[ venereal diseases ]between April 1917 and December 1919 and lost [ seven million days of active duty ]. [ Only influenza ], which struck in [ an epidemic ], was [ a more common illness among servicemen ].
Implications For Reading and Writing
The above discussion introduces a number of concepts crucial to effective reading and writing.
We do not read texts word by word, but chunk by chunk. We must read each grammatical construction as a single unit. Deciphering sentences involves isolating phrases within a sentence and recognizing where long phrases begin and end.
To write well is not to string words together, but to string together larger phrases, to create full references that carefully distinguish one idea from another, going beyond talking in vague generalities. We can increase the clarity and sophistication of our thought by using extended phrases instead of single words.
Sophisticated thought is qualified thought. Intelligent discussion goes beyond either/or or black-or-white views of the world to recognize nuances and distinctions.
Remarks can be
extended (made broader or more general) ,
qualified (restricted in some way), or
limited (made more specific or less encompassing).
We don’t really make sentences longer by adding at the end so much as expanding each chunk
Good writers carefully distinguish between all, most, many , some, few, and one. They specify the specific time, condition, or circumstances an assertion is true. Some claims are made for certain, some "in all probability" or "within a specific margin of error," some for given conditions.
Good writers carefully distinguish between all, most, many, some, few, and one. They specify the specific time, condition, or circumstances an assertion is true. Some claims are made for certain, some "in all probability" or "within a specific margin of error," some for given conditions.
When drawing careful distinctions, authors are not being wishy-washy or nit picking. They are simply being precise. They are saying exactly what they want to say or feel secure in saying based on the available evidence. Weak writers can achieve an immediate gain in the level of thought of their writing by taking advantages of the opportunities for adding pre- and post-modifiers.
For writers, this model is a reminder of the opportunity to extend, limit, or otherwise shape a specific idea. You can greatly increase the sophistication and depth of thought of your work by taking advantage of these pre- and post-modifier "slots". Having written a statement, you might go back in editing to see how you can further shape your thoughts by making use of these slots.
The Constitution is the nation’s charter, and lawmakers should resist the temptation to push for amendments every time an election year rolls around.
Notice how much richer the next sentence is (additional modifiers in bold face) .
The Constitution of the United States is the nation’s bedrock charter, and devoted lawmakers sworn to uphold it should resist the dangerous temptation to push for pandering amendments every time an election year rolls around.
(1) Janet Maslin, “When Phrases That Flatter Are Misused,” The New YorkTimes , Arts & Leisure section, August 23, 1998, p. 9.

The Noun Phrase

Like all phrases, the constituents of the English noun phrase can be analyzed into both functional constituents and formal constituents. From a functional point of view, the noun phrase has four major components, occurring in a fixed order:

the determinative, that constituent which determines the reference of the noun phrase in its linguistic or situational context;
premodification, which comprises all the modifying or describing constituents before the head, other than the determiners;
the head, around which the other constituents cluster; and
postmodification, those which comprise all the modifying constituents placed after the head.

Depending on the context of situation, we choose determiners and modifiers according to our needs in identifying and specifying the referent of the NP. Sometimes we need several determiners and modifiers to clarify the referent (all my books in that box); sometimes we need none at all (Liz).
That diagram is one way to represent the dual nature of a phrase. Each phrase, remember, is a merger of both form and function, and, as complex as it looks, the diagram illustrates only some of the complexities of the noun phrase in English. (For a more thorough treatment, see Halliday 1994 and Quirk et al. 1985.) Another way to illustrate some of the possible arrangements of form and function in the noun phrase is presented in the table below.
Some Examples of the Noun Phrase in English










of the children

badly needed
with the family


to the story

all my



new mystery
which we recently enjoyed

such a
data bank
filled with information


than I

Prepositional Phrase
Relative Clause
Adjective Phrase
Nonfinite Clause

Notice that several forms classes can be "reused." For example, in the noun phrase it is possible to use quantifiers to function as pre-determiners or as post-determiners. This kind of "recycling" is known as recursion. Notice also that phrases and even whole clauses can be "recycled" into the noun phrase. This process of placing a phrase of clause within another phrase of clause is called embedding. It is through the processes of recursion and embedding that we are able to take a finite number of forms (words and phrases) and construct an infinite number of expressions. Furthermore, embedding also allows us to construct an infinitely long structure, in theory anyway.
For example, the nursery rhyme "The House That Jack Built" plays on the process of embedding in English noun phrases. The nursery rhyme is one sentence that continuously grows by embedding more and more relative clauses as postmodifiers in the noun phrase that ends the sentence:
This is the house that Jack built.
This is the malt that lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the mouse that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the cat that scared the mouse that ate the malt hat lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the dog that chased the cat that scared the mouse that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built.
This is the boy who loves the dog that chased the cat that scared the mouse that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built.
And so on. In theory, we could go on forever because language relies so heavily on embedding.

Past Tense

Simple Past
[VERB+ed] or irregular verbs
· You called Debbie.
· Did you call Debbie?
· You did not call Debbie.
Complete List of Simple Past Forms
USE 1 Completed Action in the Past
Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind.
· I saw a movie yesterday.
· I didn't see a play yesterday.
· Last year, I traveled to Japan.
· Last year, I didn't travel to Korea.
· Did you have dinner last night?
· She washed her car.
· He didn't wash his car.
USE 2 A Series of Completed Actions
We use the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions in the past. These actions happen 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on.
· I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim.
· He arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the others at 10:00.
· Did you add flour, pour in the milk, and then add the eggs?
USE 3 Duration in Past
The Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. A duration is a longer action often indicated by expressions such as: for two years, for five minutes, all day, all year, etc.
· I lived in Brazil for two years.
· Shauna studied Japanese for five years.
· They sat at the beach all day.
· They did not stay at the party the entire time.
· We talked on the phone for thirty minutes.
· A: How long did you wait for them?B: We waited for one hour.
USE 4 Habits in the Past
The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. It can have the same meaning as "used to." To make it clear that we are talking about a habit, we often add expressions such as: always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was younger, etc.
· I studied French when I was a child.
· He played the violin.
· He didn't play the piano.
· Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid?
· She worked at the movie theater after school.
· They never went to school, they always skipped class.
USE 5 Past Facts or Generalizations
The Simple Past can also be used to describe past facts or generalizations which are no longer true. As in USE 4 above, this use of the Simple Past is quite similar to the expression "used to."
· She was shy as a child, but now she is very outgoing.
· He didn't like tomatoes before.
· Did you live in Texas when you were a kid?
· People paid much more to make cell phone calls in the past

Forming the Simple Past Tense (Regular Verbs)
The simple past tense is one of the most common tenses in English. Its form is the same with all subjects. It is usually formed by adding -ED to the verb. This page will explain the rules for forming the tense with regular verbs.
Forming the simple past tense
With most verbs, the simple past is created simply by adding -ED. However, with some verbs, you need to add -ES or change the ending a little. Here are the rules:
Verb ending in...
How to make the simple past
Add -D
live - liveddate - dated
Consonant + y
Change y to i, then add -ED
try - triedcry - cried
One vowel + one consonant (but NOT w or y)
Double the consonant, then add -ED
tap - tappedcommit - committed
[anything else]
Add -ED
boil - boiledfill - filledhand - handed
Forming the Simple Past Tense (Regular Verbs)
Type the correct form of each verb.

My grandfather had a very exciting life. When he was young, he (live) on a farm in the country. His parents (raise) cattle, and he (look) after the cows. When he was eighteen, he went to university, where he (study) Philosophy. He also (play) the trumpet in a jazz band. When the war started, he (try) to join the Air Force, but he (end) up in the Navy. In the Atlantic, a German torpedo (rip) a hole in the side of his ship, and the ship sank. Only five men (escape). They (sail) in a lifeboat back to England. Then he met my grandmother, and they (marry) after only three weeks. He says now that he (want) to marry her very quickly in case he (die) in the war.

Forming the Past Tense (Irregular Verbs)
Although many verbs in English form their past tense with -ED, some do not. These are called irregular verbs, and they include some of the most basic verbs in English. This page will explain some of the most important patterns in forming the past tense. However, the only way to know how an irregular verb will change in the past tense is to learn all of the important verbs.
The three most important irregular verbs
The three most important irregular verbs are BE, HAVE, and DO. BE is the most difficult, because its forms are different depending on the subject:
He / she / it
HAVE and DO are more simple:
Base form
Past Tense
Other irregular verbs
Other irregular verbs fall into three main categories:
Verbs which don't change
cut - cuthit - hitfit - fit
Verbs which change their vowel
get - gotsit - satdrink - drank
Verbs which change completely
catch - caughtbring - broughtteach - taught

Forming the Past Tense (Regular and Irregular Verbs)
Type the correct form of each verb.

Emily Carr, British Columbia's most famous artist, (be) born in 1871. Her parents (die) when she was still a teenager. She (study) art in San Francisco and Paris, but when she (come) back to Victoria, she (keep) a house called "The House of All Sorts", where she (be) the landlady. Many years later, she (begin) painting again. To find subjects for her paintings, she (take) trips into the forests of British Columbia, and she often (meet) with the First Nations people and (paint) them too. Emily Carr also (write) several books, and she (win) the Governor General's Award for one of them.

Rabu, 15 Agustus 2007

Teaching Recount 1st semester IX

Purpose of Recount
The purpose of a recount is to list and describe past experiences by retelling events in the order in which they happened (chronological order). Recounts are written to retell events with the purpose of either informing or entertaining their audience (or both).
Types of Recount
Personal RecountThese usually retell an event that the writer was personally involved in.
Factual RecountRecording an incident, eg. a science experiment, police report.
Imaginative RecountWriting an imaginary role and giving details of events, eg. A day in the life of a pirate; How I invented...
Features of Recounts
focuses on individual participants/events
the recount has a title, which usually summarises the text
specific participants (Mum, the crab)
The basic recount consists of three parts:
the setting or orientation - background information answering who? when? where? why?
events are identified and described in chronological order.
concluding comments express a personal opinion regarding the events described
details are selected to help the reader reconstruct the activity or incident (Factual Recount)
the ending may describe the outcome of the activity, eg. in a science activity (Factual Recount)
details of time, place and incident need to be clearly stated, eg. At 11.15 pm, between Reid Rd and Havelock St a man drove at 140 kms toward the shopping centre (Factual Recount)
descriptive details may also be required to provide information, eg. He was a skinny boy with a blue shirt, red sneakers and long tied back hair (Factual Recount)
includes personal thoughts/reactions (Imaginative Recount)
is written in the past tense (she yelled, it nipped, she walked)
frequent use is made of words which link events in time, such as next, later, when, then, after, before, first, at the same time, as soon as she left, late on Friday)
recounts describe events, so plenty of use is made of verbs (action words), and of adverbs (which describe or add more detail to verbs)
details are often chosen to add interest or humour to the recount.
use of personal pronouns (I, we) (Personal Recount)
the passive voice may be used, eg. the bottle was filled with ink (Factual Recount)
Short Example
Last week my friend and I were bored after three weeks of holidays, so we rode our bikes to Smith Beach, which is only five kilometres from where I live.When we arrived at the beach, we were surprised to see there was hardly anyone there.After having a quick dip in the ocean, which was really cold, we realised one reason there were not many people there. It was also quite windy.After we bought ourselves some hot chips at the takeaway store nearby, we rode our bikes down the beach for a while, on the hard, damp part of the sand. We had the wind behind us and, before we knew it, we were many miles down the beach.Before we made the long trip back we decided to paddle our feet in the water for a while, and then sit down for a rest. While we were sitting on the beach, just chatting, it suddenly dawned on us both that all the way back we would be riding into the strong wind.When we finally made it back home, we were both totally exhausted! But we learned some good lessons that day!
Diposting oleh Budi's Teaching Material di 20:11 0 komentar
Recount: example
This sample recount is labelled to show you the structure and language features of a recount text.
A visit to a sheep property
Last holidays I visited a sheep property. I helped in the shearing sheds and in the yards.
sequence of events
On the first day the Merino wethers were crutched. I helped by sweeping up after the rouseabout picked up the wool pieces. Shearers start early (at 7.30 am).
After lunch, we started shearing the lambs. There were more than 400 so we didn't finish until the next day. Once again I was sweeping and picking up dags.
I was tired by the end of the day in the shed but our work wasn't finished. We all had to help to get the wethers and lambs back into the paddocks. As well, we had to get a mob of ewes and their lambs into the yards for shearing the next day. Then it was time for tea (that's what my nanna calls dinner).
This was a very long day but I enjoyed it a lot.

Key to language features:
past tense
action terms

indicates when
indicates where

focuses on individuals

Recounts tell the reader what happened. They retell a past event eg a visit to a farm.
Recounts begin by telling the reader who was involved, what happened, where this event took place and when it happened. This is called the orientation.
The sequence of events is then described in some sort of order eg time.
There may be a reorientation at the end which summarises the event.
Example of a recount: shows the structure and language features of a recount text.
Writing recounts
When writing recounts you should:
• focus on individual people ie use the words, I or we
• use words which indicate when (eg after lunch) and where the events took place (eg in the shed)
• write in the past tense eg had, visited
• use action words eg helped, crutched.
Use the sample recount to answer these questions.